What is zero waste really about? When we think about the waste building up in landfills and water bodies, most of us think about plastic. And plastic waste is certainly one of the biggest waste challenges we face. But living a zero-waste lifestyle is not just about ditching those disposable plastic bags and bottles.
In this article, we'll talk about what the zero waste movement aims to achieve. We'll talk about how the movement arose, and why we need to worry about waste. We'll look at some of the leading lights within the movement, how it has grown in recent years, and what comes next.
Are we doing all we can? Perhaps not. But together, we can work out the best way for the movement to improve upon their efforts and reduce waste even further in the future.
The zero-waste movement is all about limiting human impact on the planet and conserving the resources we have.
Zero Waste International Alliance defines zero waste as:
“The conservation of all resources by means of responsible production, consumption, reuse, and recovery of all products, packaging, and materials, without burning them, and without discharges to land, water, or air that threaten the environment or human health.”
One of the most important things to remember when aiming for a zero-waste lifestyle is that it is not only about where the waste ends up. It is a whole cradle-to-grave analysis that helps us to reduce its creation in the first place. While, of course, making better use of the resources we have at our disposal.
Ideally, there should be no such thing as waste or discarded materials. To achieve this, we would need a restructuring of the way many of us currently live our lives and consume goods. The manufacturing and packaging industry will also need some re-evaluation.
Those in the zero waste movement know that we can achieve this goal through a concerted and fierce effort; by businesses, government, and individuals. Not all of the power is in our hands. But we as individuals do have more power than you might imagine. Using that power to reduce waste is, in essence, what the zero waste movement is all about.
We can all join the zero waste movement. And there are several steps we can take to do so. We can:
Waste is a problem due to its current volume and toxicity. In today's world, most people operate within a throw-away society. Mass-consumption depletes resources at a staggering rate. People buy, they use, they throw away... they buy more.
This over-consumption is one major contributing factor to our climate crisis. The food we grow and the products we create require energy, manufacturing, and distribution. In an energy-abundant world such as ours (with a sun that can provide all the energy we need and more), this should not be a problem. But unfortunately most of the world's growing, manufacturing and distribution still use finite and polluting fossil fuels.
So the more we buy, the higher our carbon footprints will be. No matter how ethical our purchasing decisions may be – buying anything generally adds to the greenhouse gases we are emitting. By thinking more about what we throw away – we can help reduce consumption, reduce our carbon footprints, and change things for the better.
Plastic is one of the worst substances when it comes to energy use and the emission of greenhouse gases. Almost 45% of the CO2 emissions from industry are the result of the manufacture of just four products: cement, steel, ammonia and ethylene (McKinsey).
These industries account for 3 Gton CO2, 2.9 Gton C02, 0.5 Gton CO2 and 0.2 Gton CO2 respectively. Ethylene is plastic. This is one of the reasons why finding a better alternative for many plastic products is a key task in the zero waste movement.
Of course, waste does not just continue the cycle of over-consumption of energy. It also creates pressure on other precious resources such as land, freshwater, etc. Thinking about how much water each item you buy consumed can bring home the importance of reducing waste. Throwing things away, when it comes down to it, is the same as wasting water.
The global average water footprint of just 1kg of cotton, for example, is 10,000 litres – as much as you might drink in almost 14 years! One 1kg of cotton only makes around 2 T-shirts. So this example allows you to begin to see why throwing one away, as so many of us do so frequently, is such a big problem. When you throw away an item of clothing, you are throwing away far more than just the fabric itself.
This example shows also that zero waste is about more than just not throwing things away. Purchasing choices are also important. In the case of cotton, one claim is that purchasing organic cotton can reduce water pollution impact by up to 98%. Even better, buying second-hand or vintage doesn't require resources to be used to create a new clothing item.
The more we buy, the more we consume freshwater, land, and other resources. By refusing damaging products, reducing consumption, reusing and repairing items for as long as possible, and recycling, we can reduce our impact on the planet and people in a wide range of different ways.
The problems with waste do not end with the fact that waste requires the production of new items. The problems surround not only the initial stages of a product's life-cycle. When we throw things away and contribute to a throwaway culture, we also create further problems for our planet and its wildlife, and humanity.
Plastic pollution is the most obvious and high-profile problem. Different types of plastic pervade all environments on earth – making its way from our homes and businesses into the land and water. It endangers wildlife and global food chains and threatens human health.
Unlike organic material, plastic poses a problem for our environments which sticks around. It is not biodegradable – and will not break down for a very, very long time. This has created a massive crisis in the modern world.
The world’s annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tonnes in the 1950s to over 300 million tonnes today. Plastic is now found in every ecosystem on earth. It is found in huge ocean gyres, creating floating islands of trash.
Micro-plastics pollute the world's marine environments. Scientists have shown that up to 12 million tonnes of plastic are entering our oceans each year – an amount that could fill a rubbish truck every minute!
The dangers all that plastic poses are gradually being revealed. Not just to marine environments, but for all ecosystems on earth. When people look into what happens to plastic waste and other non-biodegradable materials, more people are drawn to help and join the zero waste movement.
But though plastic waste is generally talked about and the issues well known, fewer people are fully aware of the problems posed by other forms of waste. Food waste is another huge issue in our modern world. This is a problem not just because of the massive amounts of energy, water, land and other resources that are used to create it. But also because of what happens to all that food and other organic waste that we throw away.
When organic waste is sent to landfill sites, it decomposes anaerobically and generates methane. This is a greenhouse gas that is at least 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide.
Even when organic waste is burned rather than buried, the sheer volume of food waste we generate can be a problem. There is also the carbon cost of waste transportation to take into account. Domestic options, such as recycling food waste and composting, are solutions we can employ to tackle this problem. By composting organic waste at home, you can emulate sustainable natural cycles that don’t harm the environment.
Of course, there are also ethical issues. How can we justify wasting food when so many around the world are starving or don't have enough good, healthy food to eat?
The zero-waste movement sprung from several different environmental movements. Of course, waste has been an issue for a long time, and those with an interest in permaculture, sustainability, and green living have long espoused the ideas within this movement. But the term 'zero waste' first began to be used more widely around the turn of the Millennium, gaining publicity between around 1998 and 2002, when some authorities used the term to describe their municipal waste management practices.
It was not until 2009, however, that the term was applied at a household level. Bea Johnson, a French American woman living in California began to share her journey through her popular blog – 'Zero Waste Home'. And after it was featured in the New York Times, the mainstream was introduced to the concept of waste-free living.
In 2013, Bea Johnson published a 'bible' for those trying to live a zero-waste lifestyle. Bea is known as a visionary to guide people. In the zero waste ‘bible’, she provided a methodology to follow and inspired many in the rapidly growing movement.
Bea came up with the 5 'R's of sustainability – refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle and rot (compost). Since then, many have reused or adapted and built on her ideas within this movement.
Many have taken these ideas and run with them, and several very influential figures have emerged within the zero waste movement. Lauren Singer, for example, has influential social media channels and spreads the ideas of the movement to Millennials.
Marie Delapierre opened the first unpackaged store in Germany. This was the first packaging-free concept in our modern era. Many others have also led the way by spreading knowledge, starting zero waste stores or upcycling stores, or by launching zero waste non-profit organizations.
Since 2009, the zero waste movement has grown dramatically. Many individuals, companies, and organizations have stepped forwards to lead the way. And the general public has begun to catch on. People in the last few years have become much more aware of the problems that waste causes, and sustainability in general.
Plastic pollution campaigns such as those from Plastic Oceans International, the WWF, Greenpeace, Sky Ocean Rescue, to name but a few, have made the public far more aware of these issues. And discovering more about plastic pollution has led people to the zero waste movement.
While awareness is growing, there is still a long way for the zero waste movement to go. There is an increasing number of people who are making the right choices and implementing zero waste.
But awareness and a desire to do the right thing do not always immediately translate into actual action. Several barriers mean that though people take some steps in the right direction, it is very difficult to eliminate waste.
We should all remember to reduce waste at home. Start by making the right purchasing decisions and through the other methods described earlier in this article.
Zero waste will eliminate some problems from the consumer end, but it doesn’t stop there. Big businesses and stores also have to play their part. They should do this by switching over to more sustainable products and packaging and bringing in circular economy models.
But even when items are bought package-free, these items were often packaged for their journeys to the store – and not always using the more eco-friendly of materials. It is vital to look at the whole lifecycle of a product – not just how it comes wrapped – when making choices to take you closer to a zero-waste lifestyle.