Rail travel is considerably better for the environment than other forms of transport. This is particularly true when you consider how much CO2 is emitted per person that travels by car when compared to a train. Research from the European Environment Agency looked at the CO2 emitted per passenger kilometre. Air travel was the worst at 285 grams per passenger kilometre. Road transport fared better at 158 and rail at a significantly better 14 grams of C02 per passenger kilometre6. Despite this, trains still release CO2 emissions and so, what is the opportunity for rail to improve by drawing on renewable energy? Can we really have renewable energy trains?
From passenger trains to freight trains, many of them are still driven by diesel engines. Diesel-powered trains emit nitrogen oxides as well as CO2 and particulate matter8. All of these can have a negative effect on the environment and our health.
Trains are easier on the environment. This is a term that we use rather loosely. There’s little doubt that a full train powered by one engine is vastly better than the equivalent amounts of non-electric cars on the road to transport the same number of people.
However, we cannot hide from the fact that trains still contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.
This fact is further compounded if we consider that trains do not exist as the sole means of transport. Often, especially in commuter contexts, feeder roads and other more polluting forms of transport link to rail hubs7.
Globally, we are taking climate action. And as we do so we’re looking to new means to fuel our transport requirements. As technology improves options for more cost-effective and cleaner fuel choices in the transport sector are increasing1. We are seeking renewable energy alternatives in many industries and the rail industry cannot and should not be overlooked.
In fact, researchers argue that coupled with its already cleaner footprint encouraging wider rail use can play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions9.
Many countries are investing huge amounts of money into rail infrastructure. The UK alone is likely to spend £80bn on its HS2 network. This will utilise electricity to power faster trains between key cities.
While this is a move away from the dirty diesel engines, it still requires electricity. Needless to say, the environmental footprint of our train travel is significantly improved if these trains can be powered by electricity from renewable sources.
If we are to make a significant positive impact on CO2 levels then we must focus on all areas. Ultimately looking for transport solutions that avoid polluting CO2 entirely.
When you consider that a plane from London to Madrid will emit 118kg of Co2 per passenger compared to just 43kg by train, it is clear to see the difference. Despite this, reducing rail CO2 emissions by considering options and making changes can only aid the case for a cleaner, greener rail.
Absolutely. the idea of operating transport using renewable energy is not a new concept. In the same way, as we can now power cars by solar energy, we can use solar to power trains. We can also look at how we can generate electricity during braking and store it to power the electric motors modern trains need to accelerate2.
In India, Indian railways have already run a pilot project using the power of the sun. It is utilising solar panels in order to power trains and rail lines.
Through connecting solar panels that are deployed along the track, it can replace 4 GW of electricity that was previously generated by coal fires. This will enable trains to operate more efficiently and at a lower cost. What’s more, this project will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 270,000 tonnes each year.
This is far from insignificant, albeit just a start. Researchers have forecast that overall in India, despite growth in passenger numbers, favouring rail and public road transport could present up to a 46% reduction in energy requirements and subsequent CO2 emissions3.
Solar-powered trains are also a real thing in Australia. Using nothing other than clean energy, trains can now harness the power of the sun. Their renewable energy trains contain batteries and an electric motor, both of which can make use of renewable solar energy.
It is not just solar power that we can use to power trains. In Holland, all trains are now powered by electricity that is generated by the wind. Around 600,000 passengers each day are travelling on these trains.
In a similar way to solar power, it is possible to use the wind to deliver power to the tracks and overhead lines. Again, this is clean energy that we can use to reduce emissions and create a cleaner rail industry.
When we consider that rail accounts for just 3% of the overall CO2 emissions from transport4, we can see that overall it is not a large contributor. Despite this, there is no denying that renewables will fuel more and more of the rail industry's future. Especially as older diesel-powered trains are phased out and more electric trains come into service.
The rail industry is not shying away from the importance of renewable energy. Countries all around the world are playing their part. From India to Australia and even the UK.
In August 2019, the first railway line opened in the UK that is powered by solar. It’s not just the trains that are benefitting from renewable energy5. This exciting project in Hampshire, UK uses a small solar farm to supply power to signalling and lights. Additionally, the track also receives a small amount of electricity.
Climate change charity 10:10, Community Energy South and Network Rail launched the project. Known as Riding Sunbeams, the project is proof that renewable energy has the potential to change the rail industry.
The hope is that eventually, they can bypass the national grid. These examples are the beginning of the future for the railway industry.
Bankset Energy Corporation also has big plans for the rail industry. Using solar panels that can be attached to railway sleepers, it plans to eventually undertake the largest solar panel installation in the world.
Once the solar panels have been attached to the sleepers, then they can generate electricity. We can then use this to power trains, lights, signals and even homes. The trial is taking place in 12 countries, to begin with, including the UK, US, China and Australia. However, following the trial, they then have plans to roll it out to a further 165 countries.
For every 1,000km of track, the panels will generate 200mw of energy. When we consider that there are over one million kilometres of track in the world, the potential is clearly huge.
The rail industry is actually making great strides to become greener. Despite it being the better form of transport, it still can play a significant role in mitigating climate change and improve on the status quo
When we consider that many trains are using electricity from the grid or diesel, it is clear improvements can be had. Diesel is harmful to the environment and most electricity from the grid does not come from green sources in the majority of countries. Although this is improving. For example, the UK now has a number of days a year where it no longer needs to fire up its coal generators, especially in the summer when the need for heating is less.
Many now believe we need a complete overhaul of where and how we source our energy. We are now living in an era where we are attempting to turn things around. An increase in greenhouse gases could have irreversible, damaging effects such as increased temperatures and rising water levels.
Meanwhile, governments are encouraging people to use trains instead of taking to the roads in cars. If this is the case then it could increase the amount of CO2 that the rail industry emits each year. As a result of an increase in trains and services.
Therefore, if we are to rely on trains to help improve CO2 emissions then looking for green sources of energy to power trains and railways is crucial. It is clear to see that we are making progress. There are projects currently underway that are using wind power and solar power.
What’s more, there are innovative products becoming available that could change things. From solar panelled sleepers to solar panel clad trains and solar farms that power railways, all of these changes are for the better. If we continue to develop and utilise renewable energy, then the railway industry really could lead by example.
|Christian Azar, Kristian Lindgren, Björn A Andersson, Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints—cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector, Energy Policy, Volume 31, Issue 10, 2003, Pages 961-976, ISSN 0301-4215, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00139-8|
|J. A. Aguado, A. J. Sánchez Racero and S. de la Torre, "Optimal Operation of Electric Railways With Renewable Energy and Electric Storage Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 993-1001, March 2018. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2574200|
|R. Ramanathan, Jyoti K. Parikh, Transport sector in India: an analysis in the context of sustainable development, Transport Policy, Volume 6, Issue 1, 1999, Pages 35-45, ISSN 0967-070X, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-070X(98)00030-4|
|Robinson, Mark and Schut, Dennis, Rail as the Sustainable Backbone of the Energy Efficient Transport Chain – A World View (August 31, 2014). OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 07, No. 04, pp. 19-30, 2014. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2489755|
|Vorobiev, P. and Vorobiev, Y. (2013), About the possibilities of using the renewable energy power sources on railway transport. J. Adv. Transp., 47: 681-691. doi:10.1002/atr.189|
|Specific CO2 emissions per passenger-km and per mode of transport in Europe. European Environment Agency.|
|O'Toole, Randal, Does Rail Transit Save Energy or Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions?. Cato Policy Analysis No. 615. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1263426|
|Alan C. Lloyd & Thomas A. Cackette (2001) Diesel Engines: Environmental Impact and Control, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 51:6, 809-847, DOI: 10.1080/10473289.2001.10464315|
|Baker, C. J., Chapman, L., Quinn, A., & Dobney, K. (2010). Climate change and the railway industry: A review. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 224(3), 519–528. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544062JMES1558|