Fossil fuels have powered us for many decades. As we all know, they are not particularly kind to the environment. Our reliance on fossil fuel is changing as we seek to reverse the damage caused to the environment. Following decades of Co2 emissions entering the atmosphere, there have been changes to weather patterns. As well as changes to the behaviours of wildlife and problems with our health. This has all resulted in an uptake in green energy. So we ask the question, how green is green energy really?
Green energy is undoubtedly a cleaner form of energy. As technology has developed, the ability to implement green energy on a wider scale has improved. We can now rely on green energy that comes from the likes of wind, solar and hydro. Despite this, do these alternatives offer a renewable source that really is as good for the environment as scientists suggest?
So, is green energy better for us and the environment?
First of all, green energy is a type of renewable energy which means that it will never run out. Whether that is wind, solar, hydro or many of the other green energy sources, we know that there is an unlimited supply. Solar farms are becoming a common sign in the UK1 and even homeowners have the chance to make use of feed in energy tariffs (contributing energy generated at home from solar and the likes back to the grid).
Energy suppliers are now beginning to recognise the importance of making the switch to green energy. The push to increase electricity generation using a renewable energy supply is being further driven by huge government targets7. In time, we will experience the phase-out of traditional energy sources and a reduction in the damage to the environment.
Generating energy using old-fashioned techniques creates a lot of gases that are harmful to the environment contributing to climate change. In contrast, green energy does not present this problem. As long as the wind continues to blow and the sun continues to shine, it will be possible to generate energy with little or no harmful by-products. The same can be said for many other forms of green energy. The aim of green energy is to eventually provide a usable and scalable solution to traditional energy sources. Lower carbon generating electricity is also better for our health2 and that in itself is a significant positive for lowering emissions. In 2016 alone, 4.2 million deaths worldwide were attributed to air pollution6.
In the generation of energy through wind turbines or solar, the source of energy is free and in abundance, which makes it far less damaging. In comparison to older methods of generating energy, the machinery and techniques are efficient, effective and require very few moving parts.
There are little running costs and fewer requirements for manpower to keep the machinery running. Traditional methods would rely on machinery to constantly run which would require power. As a result, it would cause further harmful emissions to be emitted as a result. Effectively, green energy is far greener from the source right through the entire process to the generation of energy.
Any energy company that offers green energy will benefit from reduced maintenance requirements. For the environment, this means that facilities are more than likely to run with less equipment. Technological advancements have lead to improvements in renewable energy systems. Therefore, the systems are far less likely to face the same problems as traditional equipment. While the energy is cleaner, there is a reduction in maintenance, which means that there is a reduction in harmful by-products.
Traditional energy sources and the systems used to generate the energy would often require new parts. Therefore, manufacturing, delivery and installation would all contribute to the environmental cost of generating traditional energy. One small exception to this could be off-shore wind farms due to the location, although there is a belief that in the long-run they will become cost efficient from a maintenance perspective.
Once the wind farms and solar farms have been installed, they can begin generating energy. These stand-alone farms are a lower risk as the raw materials are always present (weather accepted) unlike coal, gas or nuclear than not only rely on imported materials for electricity generation but also a non-sustainable source. Often, green energy requires less on-site management and that enhances its 'Green' credibility. With an abundance of wind on land and out at sea, it provides endless possibilities and with risks almost completely mitigated5, they are both feasible alternatives to fossil fuel generation.
There are many ways to interpret the meaning of 'green' in relation to green energy. Does it relate to the harmful impact of gases alone? Or does it relate to the impact on the landscape? If this is the case, then many might not consider it as green as they once thought. Further. if green energy is to become mainstream, then large geographical areas are going to have to be cleared to make way for the likes of solar farms and wind farms3.
To do so might involve clearing trees, grassland and other forms of land. We know trees play a vital role in removing Co2 from the atmosphere. Despite this, if trees have to be cut to make way for new farms, then it could be counterproductive. Clearly, there are consequences that could come with installing solar farms or wind farms.
Meanwhile, there's a small number of innovators proving that through art green energy can actually be attractive. And at the same time helping increase awareness of the advantages of renewable green energy.
The production of wind farms, solar farms and even hydro farms all have an impact on the environment. Of course, they all require materials. And they all have to go through a specific manufacturing process.
There is also the transportation, delivery and installation to consider.
Harmful gases are emitted into the atmosphere at every stage of the process. Whether this at the manufacturing stage or during delivery, the environment experiences some form of damage. Therefore, the entire process is not carbon neutral. So, some might say that these technologies have to make up some ground before they become completely carbon neutral.
So, green energy is a game-changer. The generation of cleaner energy that releases a fraction of harmful emissions in comparison to that of other forms of energy is progress.
Needless to say, there are many benefits to using renewable energy. However, there is still a lot of work to be done. The technology is evolving, which means that the energy will become even greener4.
Despite this, the process of manufacturing green energy technology still relies on damaging energy sources. Regardless, the progress is impressive and it can only get better.
As time goes on, every aspect of the process will improve and will hopefully lead to a true ‘carbon neutral’ process from start to finish whilst serving our energy needs from the different types of sustainable renewable energy. And that will be better for the environment and our planet.
|Joss J.W. Watson, Malcolm D. Hudson, Regional Scale wind farm and solar farm suitability assessment using GIS-assisted multi-criteria evaluation, Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 138, 2015, Pages 20-31, ISSN 0169-2046, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.02.001.|
|Thomas Gibon et al 2017. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity. Environ. Res. Lett. 12 034023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6047|
|Theocharis Tsoutsos, Niki Frantzeskaki, Vassilis Gekas, Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies, Energy Policy, Volume 33, Issue 3, 2005, Pages 289-296, ISSN 0301-4215, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(03)00241-6.|
|Adnan Midilli, Ibrahim Dincer, Murat Ay, Green energy strategies for sustainable development, Energy Policy, Volume 34, Issue 18, 2006, Pages 3623-3633, ISSN 0301-4215, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2005.08.003.|
|WIND ENERGY Renewable Energy and the Environment. Abbas Ghassemi, 2014, New Mexico State University.|
|Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health, World Health Organization. 2018|
|UK Renewable Energy Roadmap|